Friday, November 13, 2009

Larrea tridentata

The Creosote Bush - Larrea tridentata
Family - Zygophyllaceae

In the Mojave's lowlands, one of the most common sights is the creosote bush, a tough, hardy survivor of a plant. Excellently adapted to life as a desert perennial, it has small, waxy leaves and thick cuticle on its stem to help retain moisture.

These hardy plants can survive in extremely dry conditions with little water, making them ideally suited for surviving in the harsh, arid Mojave, which is prone to receive less than 10 inches of rainfall a year. This is due not only to the water retention capacity in their leaves, but the efficiency by which their roots can take up water. In some areas, they're capable of forming almost monospecific stands due to this ability to monopolize all available soil moisture.

Adding to the survivability of these plants is the fact that they are capable of vegetative reproduction by forming what are called "creosote rings." When a mature plant reaches about 30-90 years in age, the old crown will begin to die, then split into separate crowns, forming clonal plants. Over time, these clonal plants will form a clear ring of vegetation. These rings are exceptionally long lived, one reaching over 11,000 years old. This is advantageous for these plants, as seed recruitment requires a very specific set of circumstances, namely two to three years of above average moisture to survive germination. By being able to form colonial clones, they can survive even beyond the "normal" life expectancy without need for continuous recruitment.

Creosote, being a large component of the ecosystem, forms the backbone of many desert communities. In addition to holding the soil together with their extensive root systems, they provide homes for many animals in the desert. One trait that facilitates this is the fact that
these plants tend to accumulate considerable amounts of detritus under their canopies, which provides food and shelter for many desert arthropods and rodents.

Because of the common nature of this plant, it is often ignored in favor of the less common and showier plants of the desert. This is a tragedy, because these plants are among the hardiest, and longest lived, organisms in the Mojave.

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